Coverart for item
The Resource The Challenge of Safeguards in the WTO :

The Challenge of Safeguards in the WTO :

Label
The Challenge of Safeguards in the WTO :
Title
The Challenge of Safeguards in the WTO :
Creator
Subject
Language
eng
Member of
Cataloging source
MiAaPQ
http://library.link/vocab/creatorDate
1975-
http://library.link/vocab/creatorName
Piérola, Fernando
Dewey number
382/.92
LC call number
K4610 -- .P54 2014eb
Literary form
non fiction
Nature of contents
dictionaries
Series statement
Cambridge International Trade and Economic Law
Series volume
v.14
http://library.link/vocab/subjectName
  • Abuse of rights
  • Foreign trade regulation
  • Tariff -- Law and legislation
  • World Trade Organization
Label
The Challenge of Safeguards in the WTO :
Instantiates
Publication
Copyright
Carrier category
online resource
Carrier category code
  • cr
Carrier MARC source
rdacarrier
Color
multicolored
Content category
text
Content type code
  • txt
Content type MARC source
rdacontent
Contents
  • Cover -- Half-title -- Series information -- Title page -- Copyright information -- Table of contents -- List of figures -- Preface -- GATT/WTO Dispute Settlement Reports -- Part I Foundation of the safeguard mechanism -- 1 History of the safeguard mechanism -- 1 Introduction of the safeguard mechanism -- 1.1 General context -- 1.2 The Atlantic Charter -- 1.3 The new economic order after the Second World War -- 1.4 Negotiating history of the safeguard clause -- 1.4.1 US proposals of 1945 -- 1.4.2 The Suggested Charter -- 1.4.3 Preparatory Committee negotiations -- 1.4.4 London discussions -- 1.4.5 The initiative of the GATT -- 1.4.6 New York redrafting -- 1.4.7 Geneva discussions: the GATT safeguard clause -- 1.4.8 The Havana Conference -- 1.5 ITO failure and the 'provisional' application of the GATT over forty-seven years -- 2 The GATT: objectives, disciplines, exceptions -- 2.1 Object and purpose -- 2.2 Basic obligations -- 2.3 Exceptions -- 2.4 Dispute settlement -- 3 Article XIX: the safeguard clause -- 3.1 Article XIX:1(a) - the clause -- 3.2 Article XIX:1(b) - safeguard for tariff preferences -- 3.3 Article XIX:2 - transparency -- 3.4 Article XIX:3 - retaliation -- 3.5 Summary of overall structure -- 4 From the GATT up to the Uruguay Round -- 4.1 Post-GATT refinements and application -- 4.2 Operation of Article XIX during the GATT 1947 period -- 4.3 Disputes on safeguards during the GATT 1947 period -- 4.3.1 United States - Fur Felt Hats (complaint by Czechoslovakia) -- 4.3.2 United States - Dried Figs (complaints by Greece and Turkey) -- 4.3.3 United States - Spring Clothespins (complaint by Denmark and Sweden) -- 4.3.4 Norway - Textile Products (complaint by the United Kingdom (for Hong Kong)) -- 4.3.5 Switzerland - Table Grapes (complaint by the EEC) -- 4.4 Concerns raised during the GATT 1947 period
  • 4.4.1 Discriminatory application of safeguards -- 4.4.2 Market disruption -- 4.4.3 Grey-area measures -- 4.4.4 Clarification of requirements and establishment of procedural rules -- 4.5 Attempts to establish new rules on safeguards -- 5 Negotiating history of the WTO Agreement on Safeguards -- 5.1 Punta del Este Mandate -- 5.2 Negotiation process: structure and initial steps -- 5.3 The First Draft Agreement (June 1989) -- 5.3.1 Content -- 5.3.2 Follow-ups -- 5.4 The Second Draft Agreement (January 1990) -- 5.4.1 Content -- 5.4.2 Follow-ups -- 5.5 The Third Draft Agreement (July 1990) -- 5.5.1 Content -- 5.5.2 Follow-ups -- 5.6 The Fourth Draft Agreement (October 1990) -- 5.6.1 Content -- 5.6.2 Follow-ups -- 5.7 The Fifth Draft Agreement (June 1991) -- 5.7.1 Content -- 5.7.2 Follow-ups -- 5.8 The Sixth Draft Agreement (December 1991) -- 5.9 The Secretariat's suggested corrections -- 6 Conclusion on the negotiating history of the safeguard mechanism -- 7 Operation of the safeguard mechanism during the WTO period (1995-2013) -- 2 The rationale of the safeguard mechanism -- 1 Flexibility -- 1.1 Expectations and transaction costs -- 1.2 Rebus sic stantibus -- 1.3 Practical problems and usefulness of the safeguard mechanism -- 2 Compensation and adjustment -- 2.1 Efficiency counter-argument -- 2.2 Compensation -- 2.3 Industrial adjustment -- 3 Political valve and institutional channel -- 4 Conclusion on the rationale for the safeguard mechanism -- Part II Right to apply a safeguard -- 3 Period of investigation and products at issue -- 1 Period of investigation -- 1.1 Significance -- 1.2 Legal guidance -- 1.2.1 POI focused on the most recent past -- 1.2.2 POI long enough to suit the facts -- 1.2.3 POI should include most recent data available -- 1.2.4 POI segments should be free of manipulation or bias -- 1.2.5 POI should not be based on fragmented periods
  • 1.2.6 Could guidance been drawn from the recommendations of the WTO Committee on Anti-Dumping Practices? -- 1.3 Practical remarks -- 2 Products at issue -- 2.1 The investigated product -- 2.1.1 Significance -- 2.1.1.1 Legal implications -- 2.1.1.2 Business considerations -- 2.1.1.2.1 Horizontal coverage -- 2.1.1.2.2 Vertical coverage -- 2.1.2 The question of the legal standard -- 2.2 The domestic like or directly competitive products -- 2.2.1 Like products -- 2.2.1.1 Criteria for the determination of likeness -- 2.2.1.1.1 Properties, quality, nature and physical characteristics of the products -- 2.2.1.1.2 Consumers' tastes and habits -- 2.2.1.1.3 End uses -- 2.2.1.1.4 Tariff classification -- 2.2.1.2 Evaluation of likeness -- 2.2.2 Direct competitiveness -- 2.2.3 The burden of establishing likeness or direct competitiveness -- 2.3 The order of analysis: investigated product or like or directly competitive product? -- 4 Unforeseen developments and the effect of GATT obligations -- 1 Relationship between unforeseen developments and the effect of GATT obligations and the other requirements .... -- 1.1 Coexistence of Article XIX:1(a) with the AS -- 1.2 Unforeseen developments and effect of GATT obligations as circumstances and not as conditions.... -- 1.3 Logical connection and the question of causation -- 1.4 Reasoned and adequate conclusions on unforeseen developments and the effect of GATT obligations -- 2 Unforeseen developments -- 2.1 Meaning -- 2.2 Function -- 2.3 Operative aspects of unforeseen developments -- 2.4 Types of developments that have been discussed in case law -- 3 Effect of GATT obligations incurred, including concessions -- 3.1 Rationale -- 3.2 Scope -- 3.3 Could the effect of the obligations include the MFN obligations? -- 3.4 Discussion of the requirement in WTO disputes -- 5 Increase in imports
  • 1 Definition of 'imports', data gathering and the measurement of imports -- 1.1 Relevant imports -- 1.1.1 Entries into export-processing zones -- 1.1.2 Exclusion of imports made by domestic producers -- 1.1.3 Exclusion of imports because of their negligibility -- 1.1.4 Exclusion of imports unrelated to the unforeseen developments or the effect of GATT obligations? -- 1.2 Challenges in gathering import data -- 1.3 Measurement in terms of volume vs. value -- 1.4 Challenges in measuring volumes -- 1.5 Increase in imports -- 1.6 Absolute increase in imports -- 1.6.1 Recent, sudden, sharp and significant increases, and Article 4.2(a) of the AS -- 1.6.2 Assessment of trends -- 1.6.3 Baseline -- 1.6.4 Recent past against overall POI -- 1.6.5 Comparisons of segments -- 1.6.6 The measurement of the 'increase' -- 1.7 Relative increase in imports -- 2 Increase in imports and retaliation -- 3 Increase in imports and evolution of prices -- 6 Serious injury -- 1 Domestic industry -- 1.1 Strategic incentives shaped by the definition of domestic industry -- 1.1.1 Definition -- 1.1.1.1 Relevant producers -- 1.1.1.1.1 Minimum production threshold -- 1.1.1.1.2 Geographical location of producers -- 1.1.1.1.3 Domestic producers at the supranational level -- 1.1.1.2 Number of producers: 'all' or a 'major proportion' -- 1.1.1.3 Lack of standing rules for the initiation of a safeguard investigation -- 1.1.1.4 The domestic industry as the basis for the injury analysis -- 2 Serious injury -- 2.1 Meaning of serious injury -- 2.2 Considerations for the evaluation of serious injury -- 2.2.1 Factors having a bearing on the state of the industry -- 2.2.2 Selection of factors of an objective and quantifiable nature and data collection -- 2.2.3 Evaluation of the specific injury indicators listed in Article 4.2(a)
  • 2.2.3.1 Rate and amount of the increase in imports in absolute and relative terms -- 2.2.3.2 The share of the domestic market taken by increased imports -- 2.2.3.3 Changes in the level of sales -- 2.2.3.4 Changes in the level of production -- 2.2.3.5 Changes in the level of productivity -- 2.2.3.6 Changes in the level of capacity utilization -- 2.2.3.7 Changes in profits and losses -- 2.2.3.8 Changes in the level of employment -- 2.3 Evaluation of the significant overall impairment -- 3 Threat of serious injury -- 3.1 Meaning of threat of serious injury -- 3.2 Evidentiary requirements -- 3.3 Methodological considerations -- 3.4 Relationship between the threat of serious injury and serious injury -- 7 Causal link -- 1 Appropriateness of the causal link between increased imports and serious injury -- 2 Demonstration of causation as a multilayered process -- 2.1 Evaluation of causation based on objective evidence -- 2.1.1 The analysis of coincidence in time -- 2.1.2 Analysis of conditions of competition -- 2.2 The non-attribution analysis -- 2.2.1 Appropriateness of non-attribution -- 2.2.1.1 Functioning -- 2.2.2 Examples of other sources -- 2.2.2.1 Other imports contributing to the serious injury -- 2.2.2.1.1 Foreseen increased imports -- 2.2.2.1.2 Imports that cause injury but were made by the domestic industry itself -- 2.2.2.1.3 Could de minimis imports be excluded from the investigation? -- 2.2.2.1.4 Imports from regional trading partners -- 2.2.2.1.5 Imports from developing countries excluded under Article 9.1? -- 2.2.2.2 Demand-related changes contributing to the serious injury -- 2.2.2.2.1 Contraction in demand -- 2.2.2.2.2 Changes in consumption patterns that may modify demand -- 2.2.2.3 Trade-restrictive practices and competition -- 2.2.2.4 Developments in technology -- 2.2.2.5 Export performance and productivity -- 2.2.2.6 Capacity increases
  • 2.2.2.7 Inefficiency in domestic production
Control code
UMKCLawddaEBC1719639
Dimensions
unknown
Extent
1 online resource (420 pages)
Form of item
online
Isbn
9781316076071
Media category
computer
Media MARC source
rdamedia
Media type code
  • c
Note
UMKC Law: DDA record.
Sound
unknown sound
Specific material designation
remote
System control number
  • (MiAaPQ)EBC1719639
  • (Au-PeEL)EBL1719639
  • (CaPaEBR)ebr10921197
  • (OCoLC)889674456
Label
The Challenge of Safeguards in the WTO :
Publication
Copyright
Carrier category
online resource
Carrier category code
  • cr
Carrier MARC source
rdacarrier
Color
multicolored
Content category
text
Content type code
  • txt
Content type MARC source
rdacontent
Contents
  • Cover -- Half-title -- Series information -- Title page -- Copyright information -- Table of contents -- List of figures -- Preface -- GATT/WTO Dispute Settlement Reports -- Part I Foundation of the safeguard mechanism -- 1 History of the safeguard mechanism -- 1 Introduction of the safeguard mechanism -- 1.1 General context -- 1.2 The Atlantic Charter -- 1.3 The new economic order after the Second World War -- 1.4 Negotiating history of the safeguard clause -- 1.4.1 US proposals of 1945 -- 1.4.2 The Suggested Charter -- 1.4.3 Preparatory Committee negotiations -- 1.4.4 London discussions -- 1.4.5 The initiative of the GATT -- 1.4.6 New York redrafting -- 1.4.7 Geneva discussions: the GATT safeguard clause -- 1.4.8 The Havana Conference -- 1.5 ITO failure and the 'provisional' application of the GATT over forty-seven years -- 2 The GATT: objectives, disciplines, exceptions -- 2.1 Object and purpose -- 2.2 Basic obligations -- 2.3 Exceptions -- 2.4 Dispute settlement -- 3 Article XIX: the safeguard clause -- 3.1 Article XIX:1(a) - the clause -- 3.2 Article XIX:1(b) - safeguard for tariff preferences -- 3.3 Article XIX:2 - transparency -- 3.4 Article XIX:3 - retaliation -- 3.5 Summary of overall structure -- 4 From the GATT up to the Uruguay Round -- 4.1 Post-GATT refinements and application -- 4.2 Operation of Article XIX during the GATT 1947 period -- 4.3 Disputes on safeguards during the GATT 1947 period -- 4.3.1 United States - Fur Felt Hats (complaint by Czechoslovakia) -- 4.3.2 United States - Dried Figs (complaints by Greece and Turkey) -- 4.3.3 United States - Spring Clothespins (complaint by Denmark and Sweden) -- 4.3.4 Norway - Textile Products (complaint by the United Kingdom (for Hong Kong)) -- 4.3.5 Switzerland - Table Grapes (complaint by the EEC) -- 4.4 Concerns raised during the GATT 1947 period
  • 4.4.1 Discriminatory application of safeguards -- 4.4.2 Market disruption -- 4.4.3 Grey-area measures -- 4.4.4 Clarification of requirements and establishment of procedural rules -- 4.5 Attempts to establish new rules on safeguards -- 5 Negotiating history of the WTO Agreement on Safeguards -- 5.1 Punta del Este Mandate -- 5.2 Negotiation process: structure and initial steps -- 5.3 The First Draft Agreement (June 1989) -- 5.3.1 Content -- 5.3.2 Follow-ups -- 5.4 The Second Draft Agreement (January 1990) -- 5.4.1 Content -- 5.4.2 Follow-ups -- 5.5 The Third Draft Agreement (July 1990) -- 5.5.1 Content -- 5.5.2 Follow-ups -- 5.6 The Fourth Draft Agreement (October 1990) -- 5.6.1 Content -- 5.6.2 Follow-ups -- 5.7 The Fifth Draft Agreement (June 1991) -- 5.7.1 Content -- 5.7.2 Follow-ups -- 5.8 The Sixth Draft Agreement (December 1991) -- 5.9 The Secretariat's suggested corrections -- 6 Conclusion on the negotiating history of the safeguard mechanism -- 7 Operation of the safeguard mechanism during the WTO period (1995-2013) -- 2 The rationale of the safeguard mechanism -- 1 Flexibility -- 1.1 Expectations and transaction costs -- 1.2 Rebus sic stantibus -- 1.3 Practical problems and usefulness of the safeguard mechanism -- 2 Compensation and adjustment -- 2.1 Efficiency counter-argument -- 2.2 Compensation -- 2.3 Industrial adjustment -- 3 Political valve and institutional channel -- 4 Conclusion on the rationale for the safeguard mechanism -- Part II Right to apply a safeguard -- 3 Period of investigation and products at issue -- 1 Period of investigation -- 1.1 Significance -- 1.2 Legal guidance -- 1.2.1 POI focused on the most recent past -- 1.2.2 POI long enough to suit the facts -- 1.2.3 POI should include most recent data available -- 1.2.4 POI segments should be free of manipulation or bias -- 1.2.5 POI should not be based on fragmented periods
  • 1.2.6 Could guidance been drawn from the recommendations of the WTO Committee on Anti-Dumping Practices? -- 1.3 Practical remarks -- 2 Products at issue -- 2.1 The investigated product -- 2.1.1 Significance -- 2.1.1.1 Legal implications -- 2.1.1.2 Business considerations -- 2.1.1.2.1 Horizontal coverage -- 2.1.1.2.2 Vertical coverage -- 2.1.2 The question of the legal standard -- 2.2 The domestic like or directly competitive products -- 2.2.1 Like products -- 2.2.1.1 Criteria for the determination of likeness -- 2.2.1.1.1 Properties, quality, nature and physical characteristics of the products -- 2.2.1.1.2 Consumers' tastes and habits -- 2.2.1.1.3 End uses -- 2.2.1.1.4 Tariff classification -- 2.2.1.2 Evaluation of likeness -- 2.2.2 Direct competitiveness -- 2.2.3 The burden of establishing likeness or direct competitiveness -- 2.3 The order of analysis: investigated product or like or directly competitive product? -- 4 Unforeseen developments and the effect of GATT obligations -- 1 Relationship between unforeseen developments and the effect of GATT obligations and the other requirements .... -- 1.1 Coexistence of Article XIX:1(a) with the AS -- 1.2 Unforeseen developments and effect of GATT obligations as circumstances and not as conditions.... -- 1.3 Logical connection and the question of causation -- 1.4 Reasoned and adequate conclusions on unforeseen developments and the effect of GATT obligations -- 2 Unforeseen developments -- 2.1 Meaning -- 2.2 Function -- 2.3 Operative aspects of unforeseen developments -- 2.4 Types of developments that have been discussed in case law -- 3 Effect of GATT obligations incurred, including concessions -- 3.1 Rationale -- 3.2 Scope -- 3.3 Could the effect of the obligations include the MFN obligations? -- 3.4 Discussion of the requirement in WTO disputes -- 5 Increase in imports
  • 1 Definition of 'imports', data gathering and the measurement of imports -- 1.1 Relevant imports -- 1.1.1 Entries into export-processing zones -- 1.1.2 Exclusion of imports made by domestic producers -- 1.1.3 Exclusion of imports because of their negligibility -- 1.1.4 Exclusion of imports unrelated to the unforeseen developments or the effect of GATT obligations? -- 1.2 Challenges in gathering import data -- 1.3 Measurement in terms of volume vs. value -- 1.4 Challenges in measuring volumes -- 1.5 Increase in imports -- 1.6 Absolute increase in imports -- 1.6.1 Recent, sudden, sharp and significant increases, and Article 4.2(a) of the AS -- 1.6.2 Assessment of trends -- 1.6.3 Baseline -- 1.6.4 Recent past against overall POI -- 1.6.5 Comparisons of segments -- 1.6.6 The measurement of the 'increase' -- 1.7 Relative increase in imports -- 2 Increase in imports and retaliation -- 3 Increase in imports and evolution of prices -- 6 Serious injury -- 1 Domestic industry -- 1.1 Strategic incentives shaped by the definition of domestic industry -- 1.1.1 Definition -- 1.1.1.1 Relevant producers -- 1.1.1.1.1 Minimum production threshold -- 1.1.1.1.2 Geographical location of producers -- 1.1.1.1.3 Domestic producers at the supranational level -- 1.1.1.2 Number of producers: 'all' or a 'major proportion' -- 1.1.1.3 Lack of standing rules for the initiation of a safeguard investigation -- 1.1.1.4 The domestic industry as the basis for the injury analysis -- 2 Serious injury -- 2.1 Meaning of serious injury -- 2.2 Considerations for the evaluation of serious injury -- 2.2.1 Factors having a bearing on the state of the industry -- 2.2.2 Selection of factors of an objective and quantifiable nature and data collection -- 2.2.3 Evaluation of the specific injury indicators listed in Article 4.2(a)
  • 2.2.3.1 Rate and amount of the increase in imports in absolute and relative terms -- 2.2.3.2 The share of the domestic market taken by increased imports -- 2.2.3.3 Changes in the level of sales -- 2.2.3.4 Changes in the level of production -- 2.2.3.5 Changes in the level of productivity -- 2.2.3.6 Changes in the level of capacity utilization -- 2.2.3.7 Changes in profits and losses -- 2.2.3.8 Changes in the level of employment -- 2.3 Evaluation of the significant overall impairment -- 3 Threat of serious injury -- 3.1 Meaning of threat of serious injury -- 3.2 Evidentiary requirements -- 3.3 Methodological considerations -- 3.4 Relationship between the threat of serious injury and serious injury -- 7 Causal link -- 1 Appropriateness of the causal link between increased imports and serious injury -- 2 Demonstration of causation as a multilayered process -- 2.1 Evaluation of causation based on objective evidence -- 2.1.1 The analysis of coincidence in time -- 2.1.2 Analysis of conditions of competition -- 2.2 The non-attribution analysis -- 2.2.1 Appropriateness of non-attribution -- 2.2.1.1 Functioning -- 2.2.2 Examples of other sources -- 2.2.2.1 Other imports contributing to the serious injury -- 2.2.2.1.1 Foreseen increased imports -- 2.2.2.1.2 Imports that cause injury but were made by the domestic industry itself -- 2.2.2.1.3 Could de minimis imports be excluded from the investigation? -- 2.2.2.1.4 Imports from regional trading partners -- 2.2.2.1.5 Imports from developing countries excluded under Article 9.1? -- 2.2.2.2 Demand-related changes contributing to the serious injury -- 2.2.2.2.1 Contraction in demand -- 2.2.2.2.2 Changes in consumption patterns that may modify demand -- 2.2.2.3 Trade-restrictive practices and competition -- 2.2.2.4 Developments in technology -- 2.2.2.5 Export performance and productivity -- 2.2.2.6 Capacity increases
  • 2.2.2.7 Inefficiency in domestic production
Control code
UMKCLawddaEBC1719639
Dimensions
unknown
Extent
1 online resource (420 pages)
Form of item
online
Isbn
9781316076071
Media category
computer
Media MARC source
rdamedia
Media type code
  • c
Note
UMKC Law: DDA record.
Sound
unknown sound
Specific material designation
remote
System control number
  • (MiAaPQ)EBC1719639
  • (Au-PeEL)EBL1719639
  • (CaPaEBR)ebr10921197
  • (OCoLC)889674456

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